People speak a wide variety of languages on the Asian continent. Here is a list of most of them and the countries they are primarily spoken in:
Arabic (most Middle Eastern countries), Bengali (Bangladesh, India), Chinese (China, Taiwan, Singapore), Japanese (Japan), Farsi (Iran), Hindi (India), Khmer (Cambodia), Korean (N. Korea, S. Korea), Lao (Laos), Malay (Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Singapore), Mongolian (Mongolia, China), Russian (Russia), Thai (Thailand), Vietnamese (Vietnam), Urdu (Pakistan, India)
The most widespread Asian languages are Chinese and Arabic. Some additional languages exist in a few other countries and regions.
Note: Some language information obtained from Webster's Concise World Atlas.